Installing Ruby RVM on Ubuntu and Fedora


Installing ruby on Linux is easy, just run sudo apt-get install ruby or yum install ruby. However, version control can be difficult to manage. That is, scripts that run on a version on your computer may not run as well on another. So wouldn’t it be great if you could have 2 or more versions or the ruby interpreter on your computer.

To do this we will use the RVM – Ruby Version Manager. This is a great program, Allowing you to have complete environments for running ruby. This includes the interpreter and gems. And besides the few intricacies of setting it up, It is relatively easy to do.

My instructions are fairly similar to the official RVM instructions. You can find them at rvm.beginrescueend.com and more about RVM at there index page.

OK. Lets go..

Firstly make sure that you have a version ruby installed and curl for downloading the script (most distributions come standard with this, although minimal setups will not.

UBUNTU
sudo apt-get install ruby curl

FEDORA
yum install ruby curl

Now make sure that you are logged in as the user that you want to install ruby for. This may be a no brainier however, if you have more than one user you may wish to install ruby for everyone or for a specific person. I would very much suggest NOT install RVM for everybody, because different users may choose to run different ruby interpreters which may cause problems latter on down the track.

Time to get dirty with the command line.

Open up a terminal session and cd to your home directory. The first thing is to download the install script and run it in bash

bash < <(curl -s https://rvm.beginrescueend.com/install/rvm)

Once the script has run issue the following command to load RVM every time you login.

echo '[[ -s "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm" ]] && . "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm" # Load RVM function' >> ~/.bash_profile

Now you need to close all your open terminal windows and then launch another. When the new one is open execute the following.

source .bash_profile

Now, to test that we have done all the previous correctly you need to use the following command and compare the results.

type rvm | head -l

The should output 'rvm is a function'

Thats it. Ruby Version Manager has been installed. Unfortunately, just having it installed is not much good, we need to look at gemsets and ruby versions, but that is for another post.

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Using APT – The Complete How to Guide


Debian’s APT (Advanced Packaging Tool) is an amazing program that adds greatest level of manipulability to the distributions that use it. It enables the user to control the software that runs on their computer, making it exactly the way they like it, without any extra programs that do not get used. This is unlike any other non-*nix operating system, giving A clear advantage, in my opinion, to it’s users.

Essentially APT is a front end to dpkg, a base level program for installing and removing and providing information about .deb packages. Going into depth of dpkg and .deb files is for another time, but briefly a .deb package is a way of puting a program into a container that makes it’s installation much simpler for the end user and dpkg was written for handling these packages.

APT is also able to use the RPM package management system, using the apt-rpm method (explained later). This is a newly acquired feature of APT which I believe that was added to make the Debian distribution POSIX compliant. RPM was created for the Red Hat Linux distribution as a simple package management system which has solid dependency handling.

Now APT is available on all Debian based distributions such as Ubuntu, Mint, Knoppix and a number of others, as well as Solaris (not open any more). This means that of all the users of Linux distributions, many have access to APT. Lets see the program in action. Open the terminal and enter the following

sudo apt-get update

To run the APT program you must run as a super user or provide super user privileges. You will also notice that there is the `tack get` addition of the apt program. This is because the program has many sub layers, with others such as apt-cache, apt- secure and apt-key. The update program updates the latest information from the sources list.

The sources list is the location of the Debian packaged programs that are installable via a direct download from apt-get. Finding the best sources for the apt-get program will be in a quick tip, for now we will assume that all the sources will be the optimal ones. Now lets perform a second command related to the sudo apt-get update command, upgrade

sudo apt-get upgrade

This command upgrades the current installed programs in a number of ways. First it checks to see if all the packages are the latest version of the installed programs. If there are new versions it does a dependency check and asks if you would like to update at which stage it will let you know of any other programs need to be installed. (hit enter here) It will then proceed to update and install until your current installed programs are how they should be at their newest version.

How about installing programs. Simple ! Just use the sudo apt-get install command. The trick is knowing exactly what program you need. For example, I am writing a program which works with a database in c. I need the mysql header files which are not installed by default. The trick with accessing header files is to download the development packages of the need programs so I used the following install command.

sudo apt-get install libmysqlclient-dev

These 3 main commands can handle 90% of your apt needs. Below is a list that i have compiled about commands and there functions that you may come across needing in your use of the program.

sudo apt-get remove `program`

This removes the installation of the program specified but still lives on the system

sudo apt-get autoremove

This automatically removes all the programs which are not being used and are not depended on by any other programs.

sudo apt-get clean

This cleans the archives of the downloaded programs. Any Archives that are not needed are removed, freeing up space.

sudo apt-get autoclean

This automatically removes the archives that are not needed and any dependencies as well

sudo apt-get source `program`

This downloads a source version (if available) that will need other install methods, in order to examine the source code and build specifically the way you choose.

deb `link` `version` `relationship`

This adds a source to the list. Link is source location, version is the word number of the version being used eg ubuntu uses “hardy” or your version equivalent and debian would use ‘lenny’ for v5 or ‘squeeze’ for v6. The relationship is a little more complex. Most likely it will be partner, But it may equally be universe or multiverse.

apt-cache search `program`

searches all repositories and list ever instance of the program. This is a great way to find a program that you are looking to download.

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

This updates packages which have may have any number of dependency discrepancies.

This list is incomplete. Its a ‘working copy’ of the most commonly used apt commands. The important thing to remember is to run the update before you start working with apt so that you have the latest information, as well as anytime you add or remove sources.

If you have any questions or use any commands relating to apt that I haven’t listed, please let me know in a comment below.

Installing the Base System – Ubuntu Server


Now we have the hardware, and the software setup and ready to go, we can begin the install. make sure that you have set up the hardware with all the peripherals attached.

Step 1

First we must enable the computers BIOS to load from the cd. To do that turn the computer on. Depending on the chip set of the computers motherboard there will be different keys for entering the BIOS setup. It is usually either F1, F2, del, esc, or F10. press one of these key before the computer loads the boot loader screen. Once into the BIOS you will want to find the boot load order. Once you have found the boot load setting, change the order so that the CD-DISK option (or similar) is number one.

exit and save from the BIOS screen and insert the install disk from Part 3.

Step 2

The computer will load into the disk. First it will ask for your language, Hit enter for the default (English) or select your preferred language. Next it will bring up a basic option list. Select the “install ubuntu server” option. This will then load an ncurses screen (blue white and red with monospace font). It will then as a for a number of options

  • Select your langauge
  • Select Your Location

You will now be asked whether you want to automatically select your keyboard. I have never had this work successfully, however you could give it a try, particularly if you have a non standard keyboard, otherwise select no.

If you pressed no and you have a standard keyboard it is a US keyboard. There will be 2 or 3 screens where you must select your keyboard. If you have a nonstandard keyboard, select your variation.

If you pressed yes you will have to press some keys and it will work out which keyboard you have. There will be multiple keys.

Step 3

After selecting your keyboard the installer will load a few additional component and then set up DHCP. This means it is looking for an Internet connection. If you do not have an INTERNET connection auto detection will fail and you will have to select “set up DHCP later” other wise it will auto configure and you should be able to move straight on.

If it fails and you have the server plugged in to the Internet there are a few simple things you can check. Make sure that if you have multiple Ethernet ports (multiple NIC’s), try changing the Ethernet cord to another port. Make sure that you actually can connect to the Internet on another computer (you should have another computer else you wouldn’t need to set up a home server).
You can also try manually setting up the DCHP setting, although that shouldn’t be necessary.

You will then need to set the host name. You can set this to what ever you like.

You will then be asked whether you the time zone detection has configured the correct zone, if it has not you will need to change it, otherwise hit enter.

Step 4

Now we have to setup the partitions. Select The Guided – use entire disk and setup LVM. You will then need to select which hard drive you want to use. Select the one that you want to install the primary operating system on. It must be no less than about 10GB, although for the best results from a home server 60 – 80 GB would be optimal (For there to be enough room to backup and store all of your important information.

Next select yes you would like to save the changes. The next screen will ask you for how much you would like to use for the / (root) and swap partitions. I suggest using no less than 20GB or 40 – 50% of the drive. This allows for expansion if necessary.

Save the Logical Volume Management and write the changes to disk.

Step 5

After the completion of Step 4, The system will be installed. At some point, you will be asked to enter a name for the new user. This is the main user that controls the server, they will have root access through the sudo command. You cannot call this user admin or root. I suggest entering your Name.

Next You need to enter the users username, I usually make this my first name or administrator. but it is up to you (you cannot use admin or root). You will then be asked for the users password. If you will be able to access the server from the Internet ie it servers web pages or has public ftp etc, you will need a strong password. Make it more than eight letters, with a mixture of numbers, lower and uppercase letters and if your frantic symbols as well. If you home server will never be accessible from the Internet then you can make the password as simple as you like (still suggest at least 4 letters).

The last two parts of step 5 are 1 – do you want to encrypt you home directory. The answer here should be no. unless you are storing sensitive data it won’t need to be encrypted and 2 – are you behind a proxy. Leave this blank unless you use a proxy server to connect to the Internet

You system will now start to install

Step 6

After a short period of time you will be asked whether you want to automatically update your system. You should manually do this for greater control, so select “No automatic updates”
Another short period of time later you will be asked what extra software you would like to install. I prefer to manually add extras software so I would hit enter, however if you would like the installer to automatically setup the system add which of the servers you would like it to setup by scrolling to the server and pressing space bar and hit enter when you are finished.

The installation is now nearly complete, all you have to do is hit yes when asked if you would like to add the grub boot loader to the master directory and then when prompted remove the cd and restart the computer.

Now you have installed the base ubuntu server.

Next we will add setup users and and user version control so that the files can be better managed.

Getting Ready to Install – Ubuntu Server


The Following article is suitable for any Linux Distribution, however make sure that there are no alternate instructions on the distribution you are using.

Now that we know which version of Ubuntu we are going to install we can prepare the installation disk. The first thing that we need to do is download the iso. The iso is an archive type formate that is burnable to a disk. It can be anything really, a dvd, a cd, a USB Thumb drive. The iso itself can be found many places. Primarily it can be downloaded from the main Ubuntu website. It can also be downloaded from a mirror. Google Ubuntu mirror and your country name will bring up many different mirrors, select a relevant one and navigate to and download the iso. I live in Australia and on a university campus so i use mirror.aarnet.edu.au from which i can download the whole iso (700MB) in 15-20 seconds.

Now we will need to load the iso onto the disk (for this article i will be putting it on a cd. I will go through all the different methods and OS later). Below is a list of descriptions for each primary operating system

  • Ubuntu
    1. Insert a blank disc. Cancel any pop up windows that may open
    2. Right click on the downloaded iso and choose the option “Write to Disc”
    3. Select the Write speed and location of write – either of theses options may not be available.
    4. Click Burn. The setup of the install disc is finished.
  • Mac
    1. Launch Disk Utility (Applications → Utilities → Disk Utility)
    2. Insert your blank CD/DVD
    3. Drag and drop your .iso file to the left pane in Disk Utility. Now both the blank disc and the .iso should be listed
    4. Select the .iso file, and click on the ‘Burn’ button in the toolbar
    5. Ensure that the ‘Verify burned data’ checkbox is ticked (you may need to click on the disclosure triangle to see the checkbox)
    6. Click ‘Burn’. The data will be burned and verified
  • Windows 7
    1. Right-click on an ISO image and choose ‘Burn disc image’
    2. Select a disk burner (drive) and choose ‘Burn’. If you check ‘Verify disc after burning’, it will confirm that the ISO image has been burned correctly

For a more comprehensive list of how to burn an iso visit BurningIsoHowto which details every way to burn disk image onto a any form of disk. Thank you Ubuntu.

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